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Consolidating the third wave democracies

It brings together some of the world's foremost scholars of democratization, including Robert A. It contains essays by leading regional experts, including Yun-han Chu, P. They are also coeditors of the Journal of Democracy.Yun-han Chu is professor of political science at National Taiwan University.The ebb of the first wave lasted from 1922 until 1942, during which the number of democracies in the world dropped to a mere 12.The second wave began following the Allied victory in World War II, and crested nearly 20 years later in 1962 with 36 recognised democracies in the world.However, a few months after the apparent beginning of the transition, most of the Arab political openings closed, causing an inevitable pull-back.One of the most alarming cases was that of Egypt, where the government, controlled by the military, did not facilitate the democratic transition in any way.In addition to the complete hardcover edition, Consolidating the Third Wave Democracies is available in two paperback volumes, each introduced by the editors and organized for convenient course use. Larry Diamond, senior fellow at the Hoover Institution, and Marc F.The first paperback volume, Themes and Perspectives, addresses issues of institutional design, civil-military relations, civil society, and economic development. Linz, Guillermo O'Donnell, Adam Przeworski, Philippe C. The second paperback volume, Regional Challenges, focuses on developments in Southern Europe, Latin America, Russia, and East Asia, particularly Taiwan and China. Plattner, counselor at the National Endowment for Democracy, are codirectors of the International Forum for Democratic Studies.

The Third wave began in 1974 (Carnation Revolution, Portugal) and included the historic democratic transitions in Latin America in the 1980s, Asia Pacific countries (Philippines, South Korea, and Taiwan) from 1986 to 1988, Eastern Europe after the collapse of the Soviet Union, and sub-Saharan Africa beginning in 1989.

On the contrary, it strove to silence the protests by arresting peaceful protesters and by “trying them in military tribunals.” A concrete example is provided by the story of Maikel Nabil, an Egyptian blogger convicted to be imprisoned for three years for “insulting the military establishment.” The main causes of the regression and crisis in all the affected countries are attributed to corruption, unemployment, social injustice, and autocratic political systems.

Despite the apparently unsolvable situation, the UN, under the administration of Ban Ki-Moon, tried to work as a mediator between the governments and the protesters.

In political science, Third Wave Democracy, also known as Democracy's Third Wave, refers to the third major surge of democracy in history. Huntington, a political scientist at Harvard University in his article published in the Journal of Democracy and further expounded in his 1991 book The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century.

The first wave of democracy began in the early 19th century when suffrage was granted to the majority of white males in the United States ("Jacksonian democracy").

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