In the aftermath of the Dawes Act, the US dissolved tribal governments and appointed chiefs.
During World War I, Choctaw soldiers served in the U. military as the first Native American codetalkers, using the Choctaw language.
Based on dating of surface artifacts, the Nanih Waiya mound was likely constructed and first occupied by indigenous peoples about 0–300 CE, in the Middle Woodland period.
The original site was bounded on three sides by an earthwork circular enclosure, about ten feet high and encompassing a square mile.
The Choctaw are descendants of the peoples of the Hopewell and Mississippian cultures, who lived throughout the east of the Mississippi River valley and its tributaries.
About 1,700 years ago, the Hopewell people built Nanih Waiya, a great earthwork mound, which is still considered sacred by the Choctaw.
Scholars believe that Paleo-Indians were specialized, highly mobile foragers who hunted late Pleistocene fauna such as bison, mastodons, caribou, and mammoths.
Occupation of Nanih Waiya and several smaller nearby mounds likely continued through 700 CE, the Late Woodland Period.
The smaller mounds may also have been built by later cultures.
The Mississippian culture developed in the lower Mississippi river valley and its tributaries, including the Ohio River.
In present-day Mississippi, Moundville, Plaquemine, When the Spanish made their first forays inland in the 16th century from the shores of the Gulf of Mexico, they encountered some chiefdoms of the Mississippians, but others were already in decline, or had disappeared.
The Mississippian culture are the peoples encountered by other early Spanish explorers, beginning on April 2, 1513, with Juan Ponce de León's Florida landing and the 1526 Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón expedition in South Carolina and Georgia region.